Introduction The evolution of the school in today’s digital society involves formal education and different types of learning accompanied by pedagogical methods. In addition, the new information and communication technologies in this society give rise to another form of so-called non-formal and informal education integrating learning throughout life (Brougière and Bézille, 2007). Marchand’s work highlights… Read More


Introduction The certificates and diplomas are usually issued by schools, universities, and in some cases by training centers or companies. They are used in the resumes (CV) of holders to enhance their job application and the integrity of their career with recruiters or educational institutions. To give credibility to CVs, some companies, like CVTRUST and… Read More


Introduction The Research on the pedagogical use of digital learning media is increasingly interested in the complex phenomenon of open badges as a concept for lifelong learning. They echo investment as a mechanism of the independent appraisal system, offering credentials in a variety of individuals’ life experiences and their context of learning and skills (MacArthur,… Read More