The certificates and diplomas are usually issued by schools, universities, and in some cases by training centers or companies. They are used in the resumes (CV) of holders to enhance their job application and the integrity of their career with recruiters or educational institutions.
To give credibility to CVs, some companies, like CVTRUST and its online platform, have created a “Trustmark”. It can involve proof of skills acquisition, to give it a reference to recruiters on the job market. The question is: how can the MyLK Platform help to provide visibility or credibility to a CV and value these skills? We try to answer it by the problematic of inverted pedagogy and of appropriation of knowledge throughout the life. We are particularly interested in the dimensions of the process and procedure for recognizing formal and non-formal learning and skills that have been strengthened in the context of the work of the ECOW.

1. Reverse pedagogy problem and knowledge appropriation

The fast-growing availability of Information Technology (IT) resources and network infrastructure now offers the various contentsfor learning activity on the Internet. It seems to reinforce the concept of reverse pedagogy, which tends to take various orientations, essentially focusing on an open learning system, which can be practiced in three educational contexts (formal, non-formal, informal). In any case, there is no time required for the lecture because the learners take the posture of the teacher. The common point of all the situations of the context can result in the use of technologies (computers, tablets, smart phones, …) and communication channels (networks, social media, …). They provide learners with the means to consult educational resources at any point in time, to produce material and learning objects, and to access content published via digital media such as YouTube. Didactics, or institutional and corporate portals. (Landry 2014, Blitman 2014). Learners can carry out these activities from the indications of a formal system, or because of their own choice and purpose in informal or non-formal learning situations. However, in the context of open-ended learning, research has shown that widespread access to resources and freedom of ownership of knowledge with digital tools on the internet, and social media, does not provide coherence. cognitive essential to ensure the effectiveness of production in an apprenticeship. This raises the question of whether learners are capable of self-direction, or whether they are able to benefit from open resources and to participate effectively and fully in their lifelong learning. (Clements and Pawlowski 2012). By considering the learner-centered activity in reverse pedagogy, how to evaluate and value informal and non-formal learning outcomes so that it is credible and visible on dynamic platforms or supports such as the Dashboard designed within the framework of MyLk project?

2. Informal or non-formal learning recognition process and procedure

The two-dimensional process and procedure formalize the recognition of learning acts. The first can consist of simulation or direct observation. It specifies in the recognition phase, the sequence that leads us to identify the learning situation, its formalization with its technical and pedagogical aspects. The second that refers to the procedure involves the authority responsible for recognition and regulation. It can define and set, for example, a reference system, the eligibility conditions contributing to the validation of learning outcomes (skills, / informal / non-formal learning). The act of recognition in this situation may lead to a title conferred on it and accepted by society. It can take different forms of support (certification, document production, portfolio of skills, passport of skills, badges …), and can be used for a recruitment, a hiring or a partial exemption of a formal program of apprenticeships. In all these cases, the objects on which it bears the act of recognition must be specified according to three modalities (learning situation, learning outcomes, certification). (Werquin, 2010, 32).

2.1. Certificate of digital skills and credibility of recognition

The strong growth of digital technologies and network infrastructures promotes intense activity and access to a variety of learning content on the Internet. It gives the capacity of technical realization to individuals and creations via digital media. But also, to be able to accelerate the way of proceeding to the sharing, the reuse and the diffusion of realized objects (Lessig, 2008). The certification of these informal and non-formal learning acquired by these learning activities via the internet and the new and networked media is far from being appreciated and unanimous in terms of indisputable recognition in society and institutional bodies. The credibility of qualifications obtained through the recognition of non-formal and informal learning outcomes needs to be clarified by two factors: The evaluation process and the certification process is indisputable, transparent and consistent (Werquin, 2010).

2.2. Non-formal learning assessment techniques and formal education

Assessment techniques are mastered in the formal learning system with inputs (e.g. objectives, program content, number of course hours, formative / summative assessment control, inspections, etc.), and formalize by the institutions that are competent to deliver the qualification certificates. This is not the case in an informal and non-formal setting that would benefit from exploiting the quality assurance conditions of the process and procedure proposed by the OECD (2010). To give credibility to informal and non-formal learning, the recognition of knowledge, lifelong learning or professional experiences could be accepted in society by using this technique to enhance its added value to recruiters. or companies, educational or professional institutions. Credibility must be defined by a method incorporating a set of steps into the presented recognition process that we attempt to present later.

3. The project of MyLKplatform and the method of recognition of informal and non-formal learning

Our analysis is based here onthe MyLK as platform as a form of innovation to enhance the learning path. It is essential to offer the possibility to learners, job seekers, recruiters, training institutions, to manage the visibility of the non-formal and informal learning path. This may include, for example, information from portfolio, open education badges, and various type of individual learning, and the network assessment tools. On the other hand, the scorecard can increase the visibility of the CV content ensuring the enumeration of experiences and skills acquired in a learning situation outside the traditionally established institutional framework. To give the content of this tool the credibility of information and the undisputed recognition of learning acts, a series of steps make it possible to formalize the method of acquisition of non-formal skills. It is defined according to several studies, such as (Cedefop, 2008, Werquin, 2010, p.9) selected by the OECD.

E1-Identification and Documentation: This is a personal step to the individual which consists in identifying his knowledge, and know-how, and possibly save it on a dashboard, a portfolio. He can be accompanied in this task. (Bjørnåvold, 2000)

E2-Self-evaluation (with or without feedback):This is a fairly formalized step and may involve an external evaluator. It consists of establishing what the individual knows and what is able to do and in what area.

E3-Validation of the level of performance: It consists in establishing, if what the individual knows or is able to satisfy certain requirements, or if it corresponds to the reference skills and standards that already exists. This step which establishes the level of performance requires the involvement of third parties. (Singh, 2009, Werquin 2010).

E4- Certification: This is a declarative step formalized by the issuance of a document (e.g. Badge as title, certificate, passport skills, …) by an accredited authority to certify the performance of the individual. He then certifies the knowledge and know-how of the individual according to certain criteria. This means that individuals actually have the performance they have recognized, and that they can carry out the professional activities and tasks corresponding to that knowledge, know-how and / or skills indicated on the title.

E5- Social recognition and search for equivalent in the formal system: The title issued to attest to the experiences and skills acquired through informal and non-formal lifelong learning, must be accepted in society and should not be challenged by its institutions. It is still interesting and possible that this recognition process leads to a certification that finds the points of equivalence obtained in the formal apprenticeship system.

4. Transparency and reliability on a dashboard: Informal and non-formal learning assessment

Work at the European Union level relies on this series of steps presented in the previous section as an approach to the number of possible solutions that can make informal and non-formal learning outcomes visible. They also emphasize the transparency and reliability of informal and non-formal evaluation. Here we try to show the importance of using a knowledge management dashboard that is exploitable by both individuals, formal education institutions, recruiters and businesses.
The scoreboard must ensure “transparency” so that the process of validating knowledge, experience and skills acquired throughout life, is available at all times, to remove doubts and ensure the veracity and sincerity of acquired and the certificate issued.
He must also reassure on the “reliability” of the evaluation. It will be operational if by applying the evaluation process several times, under the same conditions (for a candidate with same achievements), we obtain the same results. In this case, it requires a harmonization of quality assurance procedures. (Cedefop, 2008).

5. Conclusion

Individuals engage throughout their lives in a process that does not always make visible their achievements in terms (knowledge, know-how, skills acquired through experience).
They can do this by putting at their disposal a well-designed tool that is offered to us as part of the MyLK.It is a platform with a dashboard relevant to the management of the achievements. It offers the possibility to provide information on courses both personalized and individualized in relation to the training objectives. It allows the user to trace his learning with new technologies and networking.

As we notice at step E3 and E4, we believe that third parties must be representative as: an academic partner, educational and professional institution. Butalso, companies involved in their area of expertise jointly define the skills sought in the labor market. They should allow individuals to express their informal or non-formal learning and reorient them in order to adapt to the requirements of a new position before applying. Partners should get involved in feeding the platform’s databases from the dashboard functions designed with the MyLK project to cover different situations in the European cultural context. The functions of the platform should articulate the modules to facilitate the extraction of information from the database that can be used for the recognition process corresponding to the informal and non-formal learning of a formal reference system of the locality and validated for example the credentials (badge, label, certificate …). We also saw that confidence in the CV can be enhanced by the visibility of its content recorded on MyLK, involving the counting function of informal / non-formal experiences and skills.It must follow in the process a series of five validation steps that unquestionably gives it the credibility of the information. Finally, the Dashboard must be a tool that allows to effectively start the dimensions of the validation process and the recognition procedure for the transparency and reliability of informal and non-formal education.


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